Conflicts of Interest | Articles

David Blumenthal, Eric Campbell, Manjusha Gokhale, Recai Yucel, Brian Clarridge, Stephen Hilgartner, Neil Holtzman
Data Withholding in Genetics and the Other Life Sciences: Prevalences and Predictors
81 Acad. Med. 137 (2006)
This article reports the research results of a study examining data withholding by life scientists at leading universities. When geneticists were asked why they intentionally withheld data, more than 20% listed the need to protect the commercial value of their results. The researchers found that scientists and geneticists who had relationships with industry, such as serving on a board or acting as a consultant, were more likely to engage in data withholding.

David Blumenthal, Eric G. Campbell, Melissa S. Anderson, Nancyanne Causino, and Karen Seashore Louis
Withholding Research Results in Academic Life Sciences
277 J. Am. Med. Ass'n 1224-28 (1997)
A survey of university life science faculty shows the prevalence of data-withholding. Nearly 20% of the respondents reported that they had delayed publishing their results for more than six months to preserve the rights to their discovery.

David Blumenthal, Michael Gluck, Karen Seashore Louis, Michael A. Stoto, and David Wise
University-Industry Research Relationships in Biotechnology: Implications for the University
232 Science 1361 (1986)
The effect that university-industry research relationships have had on university research in biotechnology is examined in this article. The authors conducted a survey of university researchers to determine if their behavior is influenced if they receive funding from the biotechnology industry. One of their findings is that academic researchers that are funded by biotechnology companies are four times more likely to withhold findings than those without private funding.

Elizabeth A. Boyd, Mildred K. Cho, and Lisa A. Bero
Financial Conflict-of-Interest Policies in Clinical Research: Issues for Clinical Investigators
78 Academic Medicine 769-74 (2003)
Possible issues with conflicts of interest when university research is funded by private corporations are examined in this article. The authors interviewed two clinical investigators from different institutions with differing conflict of interest policies in place to observe how their views would differ. Conflict of interest examples are relevant in gene patents because much of university research in genes is funded by private corporations.

Eric G. Campbell, Brian R. Clarridge, Manjusha Gokhale, Lauren Birenbaum, Stephen Hilgartner, Neil A. Holtzman, and David Blumenthal
Data Withholding in Academic Genetics: Evidence From a National Survey
287 J. Am. Med. Ass'n 473-80 (2002)
Geneticists and life scientists from one hundred universities were surveyed to examine how financial benefits for researchers inhibit the free-sharing of discoveries. The article shows that nearly half of the researchers were denied requests for information regarding published reports at least once in the last three years.

Mildred K. Cho, Samantha Illangasekare, Meredith A. Weaver, Debra G. B. Leonard, and Jon F. Merz
Effects of Patents and Licenses on the Provision of Clinical Genetic Testing Services
5 J. of Molecular Diagnostics 3-8 (2003)
To examine the potential effects of a physician's ability to perform genetic tests, the authors conducted a telephone survey of clinical laboratory directors that perform DNA-based genetic tests. The authors concluded that clinical laboratories have been adversely affected by patents and licenses on genes and genetic tests.

Mildred K. Cho, Ryo Shohara, Anna Schissel, and Drummond Rennie
Policies on Faculty Conflicts of Interest at U.S. Universities
284 J. Am. Med. Ass'n 2203-08 (2000)
A survey was conducted of one hundred U.S. institutions that received the most funding from the National Institutes of Health to examine their conflict of interest policies. The authors concluded that a wide variaty of policies exist and that a more universal and specific policy would best serve the long-term interests of the institutions.

Christine Vogeli, Recai Yucel, Eran Bendavid, Lisa Jones, Melissa Anderson, Karen Seashore Louis, Eric Campbell
Data Withholding and the Next Generation of Scientists: Results of a National Survey
81 Acad. Med. 128 (2006)
The article reports research results of a survey of second-year doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows in life sciences. Almost one fourth reported being denied access to information, data, and materials. The study concludes that data withholding in the life sciences has a negative impact on trainees. It warns that a failure to remedy this trend will hinder future research, create inefficiencies in training and foster a culture of withholding in the future.


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