Gene Patents | Organizations


Nuffield Council on Bioethics
The Nuffield Council on Bioethics is an independent body examining and reporting on the ethical issues associated with biological and medical research in order to facilitate policy making.

Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity
The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity is a non-profit organization funded by private groups dedicated to supplying information regarding bioethical issues, such as euthanasia, genetic intervention, and assisted reproductive technologies. Many of the resources and viewpoints are from a Christian perspective.

Council for Responsible Genetics
The Council for Responsible Genetics is a non-profit, non-governmental organization founded to distribute information about emerging social, ethical, and environmental issues in biotechnology. The Council also produces a newsletter called GeneWatch and maintains a website, which can be found here.

Center for Genetics and Society
The Center for Genetics and Society is a nonprofit information and public affairs organization working to encourage responsible uses and effective societal governance of the new human genetic and reproductive technologies.

National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences
The National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences was established by French governmental decree but now is an independent authority whose mission is to "give opinions on ethical problems and societal issues raised by progress in the fields of biology, medicine, and health." The website includes opinions, reports, and related information.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
The Human Genetics Advisory Committee (HGAC) of the National Health and Medical Research Council was established to provide advice to the Australian government pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues of human genetics and related technologies.

Italian National Bioethics Committee
The Italian National Bioethics Committee was established to make available information and produce opinions and reports concerning biomedical and genetic research for reference in policy making.

European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies
The European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies is composed of 15 appointed experts and is charged with the task of examining ethical questions arising from science and technology.

International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO
The International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO fosters an international discussion on the social, cultural, legal, and ethical implications of scientific progress.

National Human Genome Research Institute: Policy and Ethics
The National Human Genome Research Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health, maintains a website devoted to ethical, legal, and social issues related to genetic research and technologies. The website contains a policy and legislation database as well as links to publications, resources, and other websites.

HumGen International
HumGen is a searchable human genetics policy database containing legislation, publications, and reports concerning genetic testing, cloning, gene therapy, intellectual property, and other related topics. The website includes a newsletter and can be found here.

United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office maintains a website where users can view existing and expired patents, apply for patents, and learn other information about gene patents.

European Patent Office
The European Patent Office is the patent granting office for European countries that are signatories to the European Patent Convention.

European Patent Convention
The European Patent Convention is an agreement among the members of the European Patent Organisation that created intellectual property rights in Europe.

Australian Patent Office (IP Australia)
IP Australia grants rights in patents and registers trademarks and designs in Australia. It also provides potential applicants with information on existing patents.

Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO)
The Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) manages the intellectual property system in Canada. The CIPO website also contains a searchable patent database and patent application information.

United States Department of Energy, Office of Science
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science maintains information about the history of genetic discovery, the goals and progress of the Human Genome Project, and other Office projects.

Human Genome Project
The site is funded by the Human Genome Program of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. It provides a brief discussion on gene patenting, as well as arguments for and against gene patents.

National Institutes of Health (NIH)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The NIH funds scientific research across America and is made up of twenty-seven Institutes and Centers.

National Human Genome Research Institute--Gene Policy
The National Human Genome Research Institute is one of twenty-seven institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was a major contributer to and led the NIH's contribution to the International Human Genome Project.

National Human Genome Research Institute--Introduction to Gene Patents
The site also provides a brief introduction to gene patents and why a conflict about the patentability of genes exists, as well as links to other sources.

Institut Curie
The Institut Curie is a public organization, based in France, organized to fight cancer. It is the original organization that filed an opposition to Myriad Genetics' application for a European patent on tests for predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. The link below contains the organization's press releases on the progress of their opposition leading up to Myriad's patent being revoked.

Gene Patent Database
Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute on Ethics and the Foundation for Genetic Medicine developed a DNA patent database that allows users to search DNA-based patents granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Patent Watch Project
The Patent Watch Project is part of the International Center for Technology Assessment (CTA). The CTA is a non-profit organization designed to educate the public on how technology impacts society. The Patent Watch Project is designed to challenge patents that abuse the patent system.

The Consumer Project on Technology
The Consumer Project on Technology was started by Ralph Nader in the U.S., and it focuses partly on intellectual property rights and health care. It is funded by several charitable organizations. The site provides an array of information on gene patenting ranging from press releases to newspaper articles.

The Guardian
The Guardian is a newspaper based in the United Kingdom and it has compiled numerous genetics-related articles, including a special section on gene patents and patent applications.

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a private media enterprise owned and operated by the U.S.'s public television stations. The PBS Online NewsHour website contains transcripts and interviews with scientists involved in the mapping of the Human Genome by the Human Genome Project and Celera Genomics, as well as ethicists discussing issues raised by the mapping, including gene patenting.

The Institute for Science, Law, and Technology
The Institute for Science, Law, and Technology at the Illinois Institute of Technology serves scientists and law-trained professionals addressing complex issues of a global, technologically driven marketplace of ideas, products standards, and conflicts.


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